Survey and health assessment of chemical substances in massage oils
5 Chemical analyses
5.1 Analysis results
Table 5-1 contains a survey of the results of the analyses for content of methyleugenole, methylsalicylate and safrol and the results are afterwards presented in detail.
Table 5-1. Results of analysis for methyleugenole, methylsalicylate and safrol in selected products indicated as an average (mg/kg) of a double determination)
<.: less than the indicated detection limit
a essential oils, of which no. 50 is an diluted essential oil (3 % essential oil)
Four products were analysed for methyleugenole, and the results of the analyses are shown above in table 5-1. Double determinations were performed. The unit is mg/kg and the detection limit is 10 mg/kg.
No content of methylsalicylate above the detection limit was demonstrated in the two analysed samples. The samples were analysed in double determination. The result was indicated in mg/kg and the detection limit was 10 mg/kg. The result of the analyses is shown in the above table 5-1.
In two products was analysed in double determination for safrol. The analyses did not show content of safrol. Due to a limited amount of sample, the sample material for the analyses was slightly reduced. The results of the analyses is indicated in table 5-1 above.
The results are indicated in mg/kg and the detection limit is 20-70 mg/kg.
5.1.4 Fragrance substances
16 massage, baby, body and essential oils were analysed for 26 specific fragrance substances (Table 5-2). Only one product did not demonstrate at least one of the 26 substances. The total content of all 26 fragrance allergens is indicated on the bottom line of the table. The total content varies from 170 to 700,000 mg corresponding to from 0.017% - 73%. Two of the three products of essential oils represent the two highest contents of 40-50% and 70-72%.
Table 6-1 Results from the analysis of fragrance substances. The unit is mg/kg. The result indicates the average of a double determinationClick here to see the Table
5.1.5 Peru balsam
Peru balsam is a mixture of chemical substances. The substance is of natural origin and its content is therefore varied qualitatively and quantitatively. The perfume materials benzyl cinnamate and benzyl benzoate are among the main components and are demonstrated in the amount 245 mg/kg and 1150 mg/kg, see table 5-2. Apart from this, it contains mall amounts of e.g. vanillin. In the chromatogramme of product no. 8 of the methyleugenole analyses, a search to demonstrate vanillin and benzo acid was performed. Vanillin in amounts of 3.6 mg/kg calculated as C8 was detected. Benzo acid was not demonstrated. Due to this, the tested product is very likely to contain Peru balsam as declared on the product.
5.2 Conclusion of analysis results
Seven of the 26 fragrances were not found in any of the 16 analysed massage- and body oils and in the 4 essential oils. In one of the products, the fragrances could not be demonstrated. The remaining 15 products contained from 2 to 12 different of the tested fragrances and the highest total content of the selected essential oils.
Table 5-3 shows the number of fragrance substances found in the products. The target group of massage and body oils is mainly adults, several of them intended for pregnant women (one of these products is tested). Two of the selected products were intended for baby massage and contained relatively few of the 26 fragrance allergens, cf table 5-2 and table 5-3.
Table 5-3 Number of fragrance substances
*Of these 1 product intended for babies
The occurrence of fragrance substances was grouped as follows:
The following 7 fragrance substances were not found in any of the analysed products:
Anisyl alkohol, amyl cinnamal, amyl cinnamal alkohol, isoeugenol, methyl heptine carbonate, oak moss and tree moss. The grouping of the remaining 19 fragrance substances is shown in table 5-4.
Table 5-4 Grouping of the 19 demonstrated fragrance substances
Table 5-4 shows that some of the most applied fragrance substances are linalool, d-limonene, geraniol, citronellol, citral og eugenol. A great variation is seen in the concentrations of both the individual substances and the total content of the 26 fragrance substances. This is due to the testing of pure essential oils, which is also performed. However, several products are seen to have a high content of linalool, d-limonene, geraniol, citronellol, citral, which causes the high total content of fragrance substances. The total content of the 26 tested fragrance substances in weight percentage is shown in table 5-5 below. The content of fragrance substances of most of the selected products (75% of the products) is under 1 %.
Table 5-5 The Total content of the 26 tested fragrance substances in weight percentage.
*of these 1 product intended for babies
’’ of these 1 essential oil
Table 5-6 present a summary of the analysis results in number of products, the measured minimum and maximum values and the maximum value expressed as the weight percentage of the fragrance substances in the product. The products have been grouped in massage oils and body oils and essential oils to visualize possible differences in the concentrations of the individual fragrance substance in types of products
Table 5-6 Summary of analysis results
Methyleugenole is not on the list of the 26 fragrance allergens. However, the substance has also been analysed because of its carcinogenic effect (13). The substance was found in one of the tested products (an oil diluted essential oil).
5.3 Selected substances for safety assessment
Selection of fragrance substances for the safety assessment was based on content in the products. The fragrance substances contained in most products were: citral, citronellol, geraniol, d-limonene and linalool.
As the substances d-limonene, geraniol and linalool have been assessed in connection with previous survey projects of the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (13), (14) citral and citronellol were selected to be assessed on safety due to their frequent occurrence. Of other substances found in the products but not previously assessed in survey projects, cinnamal, benzyl cinnamate and Peru balsam were selected to be assessed on safety.