Danish-Polish Environmental Co-operation 1991-2000
The EU instruments - a lifeline to Polish accession
The EU operates primarily with three instruments, which shall ensure the introduction
of the EU structural funds to the new member states. It is PHARE, ISPA and SAPARD. Until
2006 a total yearly amount of EUR 3.120 million (USD 2.663 million) has been reserved for
PHARE 2000 has two main priorities: About 30 per cent goes to institutional
strengthening in order to ensure the implementation of EU legislation and 70 per cent is
earmarked to investment, with a view to strengthening the investments, which are directly
related to the EU acquis.
In 2000 Poland received EUR 483 million (USD 412 million) from the PHARE programme,
this was out of a total of EUR 1.380 million (USD 1.180 million).
The ISPA instrument is used for large infrastructural projects within the
environment and transport sector. The total allocation is EUR 1,04 billion (USD 0,9
billion) annually out of which EUR 300- 400 million (USD 255 - 340 million) are allocated
for Poland. Since half will be for infrastructure EUR 150-200 million (USD 130 -170
million) are left over for environmental projects every year.
Finally there is the SAPARD programme which in particular is interesting for the Danish
activities because it by focusing on rural areas mainly concentrates on agriculture and
nature. The annual budget is EUR 520 million (USD 445 million) out of which Poland will be
allocated EUR 170 million.
When it comes to the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, EBRD and the
World Bank none of them are acting as donors as such, but as financing institutions. This
means that assistance is given for instance in preparation of project proposals or in
connection with analyses of cost of EU-compliance.
The future assistance
The bilateral assistance, which has been given for the last 10 years, seems to be
changing in its present. The tendencies for assistance seems to be targeted more towards
projects, in support of the EU accession process. It also seems like more donor countries
try to develop loan programmes based on more or less commercial grounds and that the
assistance will concentrate on various training activities and technical assistance
projects. The types of projects that have obtained financing in the past and may continue
to get it in the future are those that relates to transboundary environmental problems, in
particular to water and air pollution, as well as projects which objective is to protect
the Baltic Sea.