Danish-Polish Environmental Co-operation 1991-2000


Part I
Chapter 1 The Danish-Polish environmental co-operation
Overview and results
Poland has developed to be a country with success in environmental protection. Between 1991 and 1999 Poland covered about 90 per cent of their own environmental expenditures. Denmark plays an important role in the Polish environmental improvements by contributing with more than 35 per cent of the total bilateral environmental assistance to Poland.
Chapter 2 Helping Eastern Europe - and ourselves
The Danish Environmental Assistance
The Danish environmental policy is based on the knowledge that environmental problems cannot be solved nationally.
Denmark has donated more than DKK 3 billion (USD 0,34 billion) in environmental assistance; this makes Denmark one of the biggest national environmental donor to Eastern Europe.
Chapter 3 The Danish environmental assistance to Poland
Until year 2000 Denmark has supported as much as 232 environmental projects in Poland with the amount of DKK 635,6 million (around USD 73 million) which makes Denmark one of the largest bilateral environmental donor to Poland. Besides the environmental effects the partnership also has an important political effect of making Poland able to fulfil the environmental requirements for the EU membership.
Chapter 4 The transition of the Polish environment
The Polish environmental strategy
The Polish transition to market economy played an important role in the development of the country - also in terms of environmental development. This was clear in 1991, when the First National Environmental Policy, the NEP I was adopted. Today, complying with the EU environmental regulation is one of the most important aspects in the Polish environmental priorities.
Chapter 5 The sector integrated environmental assistance
Environmental co-operation around the Baltic Sea.
In 1998 the countries around the Baltic Sea adopted the Danish Environmental Sector Programmes. The objective of the programme is to support sustainable development in all sectors in the Baltic Sea area and to assist in the adaptation to EU legislation and establishment of implementing systems. The activities of the sector-integrated environment programme are schedules as partnerships between a range of Danish or government agencies and their colleagues in recipient countries.
Chapter 6 Future perspectives
The new DANCEE strategy
The new DANCEE strategy for the environmental assistance to the Eastern Europe covers the period from 2001-2006. The sectors of air, waste, water, biodiversity will be in focus, but because the EU accession is an overall objective to most of the countries, which are co-operating with DANCEE, future projects will also focus on fulfilling the EU environmental legislation.
Part II
Chapter 7 The DANCEE projects
Sustainable development has been a keyword in the Danish Polish environmental development projects. The projects are divided into different sectors, which all have a special environmental priority; air, water, waste, biodiversity, cleaner technology, awareness raising and education and EU accession.
Chapter 8  Air
Coal and coke-fired power plants generates almost 80 per cent of the energy used in district heating in Poland. This causes serious air polluting problems, which is a threat to the environment and to the public health. Fortunately, the tendency shows that Poland is moving towards better air-quality, because of a purposive effort.

Projects described:
Waste water treatment and gypsum handling at Dolna Odra Power Plant
Exploitation of Geothermal Energy

Chapter 9 Water
Poland is poorer in water resources than most European countries.
Therefore water consumption and waste water treatment are environmental priorities in Poland. 49 per cent of all DANCEE projects covers municipal waste water treatment. Most waste water in Poland run off to the Baltic Sea, therefore one of the Danish priorities in the water sector is to protect the Baltic Sea. The DANCEE supported projects have caused a reduction of the discharge of organic pollutants and nutrients to the Baltic Sea by 14 per cent.

Projects described:
Waste water Treatment and water Quality in the Narew River Basin
Ostrow Grabowski Waste Water Treatment Plant
Poznan Central Waste Water Treatment Plant, Supply of ICA/STAR system

Chapter 10 Waste
The quantity of waste landfilled in Poland has doubled over the last 15 years. This is mainly caused by the increase of living standards and by the diversity of consumer goods. Even though there is a tendency among companies and the authorities of growing care of waste management, waste is still one of the greatest environmental problems in Poland.

Projects described:
Waste management and recycling in Podhale Region, Poland
Ship-generated Waste

Chapter 11 Biodiversity
Poland is one of the European countries with the highest level of biodiversity and the largest areas of almost intact nature.
The wealth of flora and fauna is in some areas unique, not only to Europe but to the whole world. To protect these areas and species Poland has almost 2000 protected areas and parks.

Projects described:
Bialowieza Forest - Sustainable Management of Nature and Forestry

Chapter 12 Cleaner technology
New and cleaner technology is one way to improve the environment.
The overall objective with the projects on implementation of cleaner technology is to create a kind of synthesis so an increasing production can go hand in hand with an increasing protection of the environment.

Project described:
Cleaner technology in the textile industry

Chapter 13 Awareness raising and education
The fundamental political, social and economic changes in Poland have led to more environmental awareness among the Polish people. Citizens more actively are taking care of and are involved in the development of a better environment. Also from central level things have changed. Environmental education is now a political priority.

Project described:
Bialowieza Forest - Sustainable Management of Nature and Forestry

Chapter 14 The EU approximation
The future membership of the European Union is an important motivation behind the Polish efforts to improve the environment. Being an integrated part of the European community requires that the country fulfils the EU legislation and the European environmental standards. Fulfilling the European standards is not only a question of the future accession it is also a key criterion for obtaining support from other countries.

Project described:
Assistance to Poland on the implementation of the EU directive of Integrated Pollution Prevention & Control
Project to Assist Poland in the Implementation of the Access to Information Directive, the EIA Directive and the Aarhus Convention

Chapter 15 Dancee Assistance to Flood Protection
The floodings in Poland in the summer of 1997 caused extensive damages in the country, both to buildings and infrastructure, and meant the evacuation of citizens on a large scale.

Project described:
Assistance to water supply
Prevention and Forecasting

Part III
Enclosure 1: Country characteristics
Enclosure 2: The EU instruments, Phare Ispa and Sapard
Enclosure 3: List of projects 1991-2000
Enclosure 4: Environmental effects from Dancee projects in Poland
Enclosure 5: List of abbreviations
Enclosure 6: List of relevant web-sites
Enclosure 7: Exchange rates
Enclosure 8: List of references