[Forside] [Indhold] [Forrige] [Næste]

Påvisning af virus i vand og toskallede bløddyr

6. Referencer

  1. Rådets Direktiv af 15. juli 1980 om kvaliteten af drikkevand (80/778/EØF).
  2. Rådets Direktiv af 30. oktober 1979 om kvalitetskrav til skaldyrvande(79/923/EØF).
  3. Rådets Direktiv af 8. december 1975 om kvaliteten af badevand (76/160/ EØF).
  4. Sellwood, J. og Wyn-Jones, P. (1996): Viruses in Water: Present Knowledge and Future Opportunities. Microbiology Europe Vol. 4 No. 6, pp 11-16.
  5. Nickelsen, C. og Krongaard Kristensen, K. (1991): Hygiejnisk kvalitet af spildevand fra renseanlæg. Spildevandsforskning fra Miljøstyrelsen. Nr.21.
  6. Alexander, L.M.; Heaven, A.; Tennant, A and Morris, R. (1992): Symptomatology of Children in Contact with Sea Water Contaminated with Sewage. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health; 46: 340-344.
  7. Grohmann, G. (1996): Detection Methods for Enteric Viruses. Water Microbiology for the 21st Century. 8th - 10th August, 1996. Stockholm. Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control. Edited by N.J.Ashbolt. Papers for day 1, pp. 7.1-7.7 and Laboratory Manual, C2.
  8. Abbaszadegan, M.; Huber, M.S.; Gerba, C.P. og Pepper, I.L. (1993): Detection of Enteroviruses in Groundwater with the Polymerase Chain Reaction. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 59, No. 5, pp. 1318-1324.
  9. Puig, M.; Jofre, J.; Lucena, F.; Allard, A.; Wadell, G. and Girones, R. (1994): Detection of Adenoviruses and Enteroviruses in Polluted Waters by Nested PCR Amplification. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Vol. 60, No. 8, pp. 2963-2970.
  10. Metcalf, T.G.; Melnick, J.L. and Estes, M.K. (1995): Environmental Virology: From Detection of Viruses in Sewage and Waters by Isolation to Identification by Molecular Biology - A Trip of Over 50 Years. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49: 461-487.
  11. American Public Health Association (1995): Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th Edition. Managing Editor: Franson, M.A.H.; APHA Washington DC.
  12. Gerba, C. (1996): Detection of Enteric Viruses in Water. Water Microbiology for the 21st Century. 8th - 10th August, 1996. Stockholm. Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control. Edited by N.J.Ashbolt. Laboratory Manual C1.
  13. Jothikumar, N.; Khanna, P.; Paulmurugan, R.; Kamatchiammal, S. and Padmanabhan, P. (1995: A Simple Device for the Concentration and Detection of Enterovirus, Hepatitis E Virus and Rotavirus from Water Samples by Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction. Journal of Virological Methods, 55, pp. 401-415.
  14. Ju-Fang, M.; Gerba, C.P. og Pepper I.L. (1995): Increased Sensitivity of Poliovirus Detection in Tap Water Cencentrates by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 55, pp. 295-302.
  15. Murphy, A.M.; Grohmann, G.S. and Sexton, M.F.H. (1983): Infectious Gastroenteritis in Norfolk Island and Recovery of Viruses from Drinking Water. J. Hyg. Camb., 91, 139-146.
  16. Shieh, Y.S.C.; Wait, D and Sobsey, M.D. (1995): Methods to Remove Inhibitors in Sewage and other Fecal Wastes for Enterovirus Detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Journal of Virological Methods, 54, pp. 51-66.
  17. Schwab, K.J., De Leon, R. and Sobsey, M.D. (1993): Development of PCR Methods for Enteric Virus Detection in Water. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 27, No. 3-4, pp. 211-218.
  18. Dahling, D.R.; Wright, B.A. and Williams, F.P. (1993): Detection of Viruses in Environmental Samples: Suitability of Commercial Rotavirus and Adenovirus Tests Kits. Journal of Virological Methods. 45, pp. 137-147.
  19. Wyn-Jones, A.P.; Pallin, R.; Sellwood, J. og Tougianidou, D. (1995): Use of the Polymerase Chain Reaction of Enteroviruses in River and Marine Recreational Waters. Wat.Sci.Tech. Vol. 31, No. 5-6, pp. 337-334.
  20. Woolfaardt, M.; Moe, C.L. and Grabow, W.O.K. (1995): Detection of Small Round Structured Viruses in Clinical and Environmental Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 31, No. 5-6, pp. 375-382.
  21. Kopecka, H.; Dubrou, S.; Prevot, J.; Marechal, j. and López-Pila, M. (1993): Detection of Naturally Occurring Enteroviruses in Waters by Reverse Transcription, Polymerase Chain Reaction, and Hybridization. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Vol. 59, No. 4, pp. 1213-1219.
  22. Le Guyader, F.; Menard, D.; Pommepuy, M. og Kopecka; H. (1995): Use of RT Seminested PCR to Assess Viral Contamination in Caribbean Rivers (Martinique). Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 31, No. 5-6, pp. 391-394.
  23. Girones, R.; Puig, M.; Allard, A. Lucena, F. Wadell, G. and Jofre, J.1995): Detection of Adenovirus and Enteroviruse by PCR Amplification in Polluted Waters. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 31, No. 5-6, pp. 351-357.
  24. Bouchriti N; Goyal SM
    Evaluation of three methods for the concentration of poliovirus from oysters
    Microbiologica. 1992 Oct; 15(4): 403-8
  25. Thomsen B.
    Zoologi II
    Nordisk forlag 1974, 7. udg. 6 oplag
  26. Jaykus LA; Hemard MT; Sobsey MD
    Environmental Indicators and Shellfisk Safety: Human Enteric Pathogenic Viruses
    Chapman & Hall, New York , London 1994.
  27. Kapikian AZ, Estes MK, Chanonk RM
    Norwalk Group of Viruses in Fields Virology
    Third Edition vol.1 Lippincott-Raven
    Publishers, Philadelphia-New York, 1996.
  28. Halliday ML; Kang LY; Zhou TK; Hu MD; Pan QC; Fu TY; Huang YS; Hu SL
    An epidemic of hepatitis A attributable to the ingestion of raw clams in Shanghai, China.
    Infect. Dis. 1991 Nov; 164(5): 852-9
  29. Wang JY; Hu SL; Liu HY; Hong YL; Cao SZ; Wu LF
    Risk factor analysis of an epidemic of hepatitis A in a factory in Shanghai.
    Int. J. Epidemiol. 1990 Jun; 19(2): 435-8
  30. Nørrung B, Jacobsen BL
    Levnedsmiddelbårne virusinfektioner
    Alimenta 1996 19/2
  31. Christensen BF, Bjergskov T
    Levnedsmiddelforgiftning forårsaget af østers.
    Dansk Veterinærtidsskrift 1996, 79, 11, 1/6.
  32. Outbreak of human foodborne infection caused by oysters packed in Holland.
    Rapport fra Veterinærdirektoratet, Landbrugs- og fiskeriministeriet januar 1997 (file nr.4949-15-0/96)
  33. Dore WJ; Lees DN
    Behavior of Escherichia coli and male-specific bacteriophage in environmentally contaminated bivalve molluscs before and after depuration.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1995 Aug; 61(8): 2830-4
  34. Viral Disease transmission by seafood
    De Leon R; Gerba CP, De Leon R; Jo Nriagu (ed.);MS Simons
    Advances in Environmental Science and Technology 1990, 639-62;
    New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; USA.
  35. Williams JR; Shay Fout G
    Contamination of shellfish by stool-shed viruses: Methods of detection.
    Environ. Sci. Technol. 1992, 26, 689-96.
  36. Idema GK; Bateman BW, Kfir R; Grabow WOK
    A comparison of methods for isolation of a wide range of viruses from shellfish Wat. Sci. Tech. 1991, vol.24, no.2 pp 427-30.
  37. Bouchriti N; Goyal SM
    Methods for the concentration and detection of human enteric viruses in shellfish: a review.
    Microbiologica. 1993 Jan; 16(1): 105-3
  38. Le Guyader F; Dubois E; Menard D; Pommepuy M
    Detection of hepatitis A virus, rotavirus, and enterovirus in naturally contaminated shellfish and sediment by reverse transcription-seminested PCR.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994 Oct; 60(10): 3665-71
  39. Lees DN; Henshilwood K; Dore WJ
    Development of a method for detection of enteroviruses in shellfish by PCR with poliovirus as a model.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994 Aug; 60(8): 2999-3005
  40. Apaire Marchais V; Ferre Aubineau V; Colonna F; Dubois F; Ponge A; Billaudel S
    Development of RT-semi-nested PCR for detection of hepatitis A virus in stool in epidemic conditions.
    Mol. Cell. Probes. 1994 Apr; 8(2): 117-24
  41. Jaykus L.A, De Leon R., Sobsey M.D
    Application of RT-PCR for the detection of enteric viruses in oysters.
    Wat. Sci. Tech. 1993, vol. 27, no 3-4, 49-53
  42. Atmar RL; Metcalf TG; Neill FH; Estes MK
    Detection of enteric viruses in oysters by using the polymerase chain reaction.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1993 Feb; 59(2): 631-5
  43. Lees DN; Henshilwood K; Green J; Gallimore CI; Brown DW
    Detection of small round structured viruses in shellfish by reverse transcription-PCR.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1995 Dec; 61(12): 4418-24
  44. Le Guyader F; Apaire Marchais V; Brillet J; Billaudel S
    Use of genomic probes to detect hepatitis A virus and enterovirus RNAs in wild shellfish and relationship of viral contamination to bacterial contamination.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1993 Nov; 59(11): 3963-8
  45. Goswami BB; Koch WH; Cebula TA
    Detection of hepatitis A virus in Mercenaria mercenaria by coupled reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1993 Sep; 59(9): 2765-70
  46. Jaykus L.A; DeLeon R.; Sobsey M.D.
    Development of Molecular Method for the Detection of Enteric Viruses in Oysters.
    Food Protect.1995, vol.58, no.12, 1357-62
  47. Sugieda M.; Nakajima K; Nakajima S.
    Outbreaks of Norwalk-like virus-associated gastroenteritis traced to shellfish: coexistence of two genotypes in one specimen
    Epidemiol. Infect. 1996, vol. 116, 339-46.
  48. Atmar RL; Neill FH; Romalde JL; Le Guyader F; Woodley CM; Metcalf TG; Estes MK
    Detection of Norwalk virus and hepatitis A virus in shellfish tissues with the PCR.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1995 Aug; 61(8): 3014-8
  49. Atmar RL; Neill FH; Woodley CM; Manger R; Fout GS; Burkhardt W; Leja L; McGovern ER; Le Guyader F; Metcalf TG; Estes MK.
    Collaborative evaluation of a method for the detection of Norwalk virus in shellfish tissues by PCR.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1996 Jan; 62(1): 254-8
  50. Romalde JL; Estes MK; Szucs G; Atmar RL; Woodley CM; Metcalf TG
    In situ detection of hepatitis A virus in cell cultures and shellfish
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994 Jun; 60(6): 1921-6
  51. Deng MY; Day SP; Cliver DO
    Detection of hepatitis A virus in environmental samples by antigen-capture PCR.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994 Jun; 60(6): 1927-33
  52. Sellwood J, Wyn Jones P
    Viruses in water: Present knowledge and future opportunities
    Microbiol. Eur. 1996, vol.4 , no.6
  53. Crance JM; Apaire Marchais V; Leveque F; Beril C; Le Guyader F; Jouan A; Schwartzbrod L; Billaudel S.
    Detection of hepatitis A virus in wild shellfish
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 1995, vol.30, no.6, pp 372-5
  54. Fiskeriministeriets bekendtgørelse nr.202 af 15. april 1993
  55. Hollinger B F; Ticehurst JR
    Hepatitis A Virus in Fields Virology
    Third Edition vol.1 Lippincott-Raven
    Publishers, Philadelphia-New York, 1996.
  56. McIntosh-K
    Diagnostic Virology in Fields Virology
    Third Edition vol.1 Lippincott-Raven
    Publishers Philadelphia-New York, 1996.
  57. Burkhardt III W, Rippey S-R, and Watkins W-D.
    Depuration rates of Northern Quahogs, Mercenaria mercenaria (Linneaeus,1758) and Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin,1791) in ozone-, and ultraviolet light-disinfected seawater systems.
    J. of Shellfish Res., vol.11, No.1, 105-109, 1992.

[Forside] [Indhold] [Forrige] [Næste] [Top]